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sphere, sexuality as a power instrument, and women's subordination. But while partly helping to preserve organizational structure, sexuality and emotions are used also as ways of resisting the organization's control over the individual. The novels thus reveal the ambiguity of sexuality and more generally of emotions. People strive to be loved and love, and are driven by fear, vanity and longing, at work and at home. The private and the public life are integrated in people's lives, although the public sphere also provides a place to rest from personal anxieties.

Author Keywords: Emotions; fiction; gender studies; love ; management literature; motivation; organizational action; power; resistance; sexuality

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:27  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
 and its deprivation are becoming better understood. The better is our understanding of love, the greater is our respect for the significance and potency of its role in mental and physical health. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords: Love ; Orgasm; Sexual response; Pleasure; Analgesia; Psychosomatic illness; Vagus nerve; Oxytocin; Spinal cord

Index Terms: love; emotionality; sexual behavior; oxytocin

Article Outline

Abstract -

Scandinavian Journal of Management
Volume 10, Issue 2, June 1994, Pages 207-222


doi:10.1016/0956-5221(94)90021-3 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 1994 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Love and organization




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Lisa Román

Department of International Economics and Geography, Stockholm School of Economics Sweden


Available online 6 June 2002.

 

Abstract

This paper argues that fiction provides a rich and complex field material for organizational studies. Based on three novels, the paper analyses various aspects of organizational behaviour. Many typical features explored in gender studies are found: male domination of the public
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LOVE AS SENSORY STIMULATION: PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF ITS DEPRIVATION AND EXPRESSION




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Barry R. Komisaruk1, * and Beverly Whipple2

1 Department of Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA

2 College of Nursing, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07102, USA


Available online 15 December 1998.

 

Abstract

For the present purpose, love is defined as one’s having stimulation that one desires. The nature of the stimulation can range on a continuum from the most abstract cognitive, to the most direct sensory, forms. Thus, this definition of love encompasses having an emotional bond with a person for whom one yearns, as well as having sensory stimulation that one desires. We address some of the physiological and perceptual consequences both of having, and of not having, love. We propose a neural mechanism by which deprivation of love may generate endogenous, compensatory sensory stimulation that manifests itself as psychosomatic illness. In addition, we propose a neuroendocrine mechanism underlying sexual response and orgasm. The latter includes vaginocervical sensory pathways to the brain that can produce analgesia, release oxytocin, and/or bypass the spinal cord via the vagus nerve. We present evidence of the existence of non-genital orgasms, which suggests that genital orgasm is a special case of a more pervasive orgasmic process. Through recent studies, the mechanisms and manifestations of love
+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:26  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
Our results showed the highly elaborate neural mechanism mediating maternal love and diverse and complex maternal behaviors for vigilant protectiveness.

Key Words: Attachment; emotion; fMRI; infant; love ; maternal behavior

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Psychoneuroendocrinology
Volume 23, Issue 8, November 1998, Pages 927-944


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Madoka Noriuchi , a, , Yoshiaki Kikuchia and Atsushi Senooa

aLaboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Frontier Health Science, Division of Human Health Science, Graduate School of Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.

Received 19 January 2007; 

revised 13 May 2007; 

accepted 14 May 2007. 

Available online 7 August 2007.

 

Background

Maternal love, which may be the core of maternal behavior, is essential for the mother-infant attachment relationship and is important for the infant’s development and mental health. However, little has been known about these neural mechanisms in human mothers. We examined patterns of maternal brain activation in response to infant cues using video clips.

Methods

We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements while 13 mothers viewed video clips, with no sound, of their own infant and other infants of approximately 16 months of age who demonstrated two different attachment behaviors (smiling at the infant’s mother and crying for her).

Results

We found that a limited number of the mother’s brain areas were specifically involved in recognition of the mother’s own infant, namely orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), periaqueductal gray, anterior insula, and dorsal and ventrolateral parts of putamen. Additionally, we found the strong and specific mother’s brain response for the mother’s own infant’s distress. The differential neural activation pattern was found in the dorsal region of OFC, caudate nucleus, right inferior frontal gyrus, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, thalamus, substantia nigra, posterior superior temporal sulcus, and PFC.

Conclusions

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References - selected

Biological Psychiatry
Volume 63, Issue 4, 15 February 2008, Pages 415-423
Stress, Depression, and Circuitry


doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.05.018 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2008 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Elsevier Inc.

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Original Article

The Functional Neuroanatomy of Maternal Love: Mother’s Response to Infant’s Attachment Behaviors

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became indistinguishable from those of the control groups. Taken together, these findings suggest that some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised NGF levels in the bloodstream.

Keywords: Romantic love ; Pair bonding; Humans; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Neurotrophins; Nerve growth factor

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+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:24  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love




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Enzo Emanuelea, , , Pierluigi Politib, Marika Bianchia, Piercarlo Minorettia, Marco Bertonaa and Diego Geroldia

aInterdepartmental Center for Research in Molecular Medicine (CIRMC), University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 24, I-27100 Pavia, Italy

bDepartment of Health Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy

Received 5 August 2005; 

revised 12 September 2005; 

accepted 15 September 2005. 

Available online 10 November 2005.

 

Summary

Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs). Plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4 were measured in a total of 58 subjects who had recently fallen in love and compared with those of two control groups, consisting of subjects who were either single or were already engaged in a long-lasting relationship. NGF level was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the subjects in love [mean (SEM): 227 (14) pg/ml] than in either the subjects with a long-lasting relationship [123 (10) pg/ml] or the subjects with no relationship [149 (12) pg/ml]. Notably, there was also a significant positive correlation between levels of NGF and the intensity of romantic love as assessed with the passionate love scale (r=0.34; p=0.007). No differences in the concentrations of other NTs were detected. In 39 subjects in love who—after 12–24 months—maintained the same relationship but were no longer in the same mental state to which they had referred during the initial evaluation, plasma NGF levels decreased and
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Author Keywords: Steroid hormones; Sexual behavior; Reproduction; Neuroendocrinology; Sex determination; Sexual differentiation

Index Terms: love; neuroendocrine system; steroid hormone

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Psychoneuroendocrinology
Volume 31, Issue 3, April 2006, Pages 288-294


doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.09.002 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2005 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  Cited By in Scopus (17)

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:23  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
THE EVOLUTIONARY ANTECEDENTS TO LOVE




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David Crews*

Institutes of Reproductive Biology and Neuroscience and the Departments of Psychology and Zoology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA


Available online 15 December 1998.

 

Abstract

Behaviors are adaptations to the physical, biotic, and social environments. Great diversity exists among vertebrates in reproductive behaviors and the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying these behaviors. Study of this diversity illuminates species, population, and sex differences in hormone–brain-behavior relations. It also can provide insights into how and why certain neuroendocrine mechanisms evolved. Discoveries in evolution and ecology, neuroscience and endocrinology, are complementary and interrelated, and when applied in behavioral neuroscience, the investigator's perspective is less constrained by existing dogma. Naturally-occurring organisms not typically studied can be especially useful as their unusual adaptations illustrate alternative solutions to particular problems. Indeed, they ‘often force one to abandon standard methods and standard points of view’ with the result that, ‘in trying to comprehend their special and often unusual adaptation, one often serendipitously stumbles on new insights’ (Bartholomew, 1982). Thus, to ignore comparative research would greatly limit our understanding of the evolution of hormone-behavior relations. As Bullock (1984) admonishes, “without due consideration of the neural and behavioral correlates of differences between higher taxa and between closely related families, species, sexes, and stages, we cannot expect to understand our nervous systems or ourselves”. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved
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• References

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Psychoneuroendocrinology
Volume 23, Issue 8, November 1998, Pages 751-764


doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(98)00053-5 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

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+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:21  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
References - selected

Journal of Economic Psychology
Volume 13, Issue 3, September 1992, Pages 509-514


doi:10.1016/0167-4870(92)90008-U | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 1992 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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Why and when to love your enemy




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Friedel Bolle*

University of Köln, Köln, Germany

Received 21 August 1991; 

accepted 26 June 1992. 

Available online 5 March 2002.

 

Abstract

The economic theory of altruism assumes that our utility depends on the utility of other people. A positive dependency can be called love, a negative dependency can be called hate. If we assume that, up to a certain degree, we are able to influence our feelings, then a ‘Christian rule’ is implied. When I am confronted with a powerful enemy, i.e. a person who hates me, then I may be well advised to love this enemy.

The masochist begs the sadist: ‘Torture me!’ ‘No!’ says the sadist.

Article Outline

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Robert J. Sternberga and Susan Grajek

aYale U


Available online 28 May 2007.

 

Compared 3 alternative structural models of the nature of love, assessed the validity of each of these models for a variety of close relationships, and predicted success of close relationships on the basis of instruments used to assess love and other personal characteristics. The present study investigated whether love is better characterized as C. Spearman's (1927) unifactorial entity that is unitary and nondecomposable into underlying constituents; (2) G. H. Thomson's (1939) entity comprising a large number of affective, cognitive, and motivational bonds that, in the experience of love, are jointly sampled; or (3) L. L. Thurstone's (1938) entity comprising a small number of correlated primary factors of roughly equal importance and salience in the experience of love. 35 male and 50 female 18-70 yr olds completed psychometric instruments measuring their demographic backgrounds, personality characteristics, love history, and feelings of love in close relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, same-sex best friends, and spouses or lovers. Factor analysis of the love scales suggested that love is best characterized in terms of the Thomsonian "bonds" model and that the structure of love is quite similar across the various close relationships in which one engages. It is concluded that success of close relationships can be predicted from a set of measures that includes a love scale and measures of personal attributes. (52 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Author Keywords: comparison of 3 structural models of love, prediction of success of close relationships, 18-70 yr olds

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+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:19  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
are provided to expand the reciprocity hypothesis in humans to include other benefits from family involvement, such as emotional connectedness and personal satisfaction from sharing with others.


Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, BEH 339, Tampa, Florida 33620-8200


Journal of Family Psychology
Volume 7, Issue 3, December 1993, Pages 293-300

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume 47, Issue 2, August 1984, Pages 312-329


doi:10.1037/0022-3514.47.2.312 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI 

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The nature of love

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:19  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
Father Absence, Mother Love, and Other Family Issues That Need to Be Questioned: Comment on Silverstein (1993)




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Vicky Phares , a

aDepartment of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, BEH 339, Tampa, Florida 33620-8200, USA

Received 10 July 1993; 

accepted 1 August 1993. 

Available online 20 September 2002.

 

Abstract

Additional information is added to L. B. Silverstein's (1993) article regarding human fathers' involvement with their children. It is argued that the “cad–dad” dichotomy should be conceptualized as a continuum to reflect the varying degrees of paternal involvement with children in a variety of family constellations. In addition, H. F. Harlow's (1958) classic research on contact comfort is discussed in relation to misrepresentation of research results on the basis of historical context. Finally, suggestions
+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:19  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
Father Absence, Mother Love, and Other Family Issues That Need to Be Questioned: Comment on Silverstein (1993)




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Vicky Phares , a

aDepartment of Psychology, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, BEH 339, Tampa, Florida 33620-8200, USA

Received 10 July 1993; 

accepted 1 August 1993. 

Available online 20 September 2002.

 

Abstract

Additional information is added to L. B. Silverstein's (1993) article regarding human fathers' involvement with their children. It is argued that the “cad–dad” dichotomy should be conceptualized as a continuum to reflect the varying degrees of paternal involvement with children in a variety of family constellations. In addition, H. F. Harlow's (1958) classic research on contact comfort is discussed in relation to misrepresentation of research results on the basis of historical context. Finally, suggestions
+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:18  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
Gerontologists have studied religion and spirituality for almost three decades. Much of this work focuses on determining how elders' religious and spiritual beliefs and practices affect various indicators of well-being. This paper critiques many of the assumptions underlying this research and suggests alternatives to individualistic formulations of well-being. Experiences in spiritual communities of various types may help aging persons to be mindfully present to others, to recognize that all are vulnerable to the afflictions of aging and the certainty of death, and to love and care for others while working to promote justice. In this paper, I describe how my marriage to a minister enabled me to develop relationships with frail elders and young adults seeking to live faithfully. These friends have influenced my work and have helped to shape my views on my own aging.

Keywords: Religion; Pirituality; Well-being; Mindfulness; Vulnerability; Love

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Journal of Family Psychology
Volume 7, Issue 3, December 1993, Pages 293-300


+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:18  توسط سناره اسماني  | 
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Journal of Aging Studies
Volume 22, Issue 2, April 2008, Pages 132-139
Coming of Age: Critical Gerontologists Reflect on Their Own Aging, Age Research and the Making of Critical Gerontology - Special Issue in Memory of Mike Hepworth 1938-2007


doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2007.12.013 | How to Cite or Link Using DOI
Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Mindfulness, vulnerability, and love: Spiritual lessons from frail elders, earnest young pilgrims, and middle aged rockers




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Susan H. McFaddena,

aDepartment of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, 800 Algoma Blvd., Oshkosh, WI 54901, United States

Received 8 August 2007; 

revised 11 October 2007; 

accepted 12 December 2007. 

Available online 30 January 2008.

 

Abstract

+ نوشته شده در  پنجشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1389ساعت 7:17  توسط سناره اسماني  | 




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Loren Stecka, Diane Levitan, David McLane and Harold H. Kelley

aU California, Los Angeles


Available online 28 May 2007.

 

Determined the relative representativeness, as exemplars of love, of caring and needing, which are subclasses of love. In 5 studies with 322 undergraduates, Ss examined different items on the Love Scale, were instructed differently on how to interpret response patterns, and rated the response patterns on how much love the individual felt for the partner, how friendly he or she felt toward the partner, how much he or she liked the partner, and how attracted he or she was to the partner. It was predicted that (a) care plays a more important role than need in judgments of love and (b) need plays a more important role than care in judgments of attraction. Results support these predictions and also indicate that trust plays a more important role in judgments of friendship than in those of any other attitude. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

Author Keywords: role of caring &; needing in love, college students


Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume 43, Issue 3, September 1982, Pages 481-491

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